|Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater)
French: Vacher à tête brune German: Braunkopf-Kuhstärling Spanish: Tordo Cabecipardo
Other common names: Common Cowbird
Subspecies and Distribution
M. a. obscurus (J. F. Gmelin, 1789) – breeds along Pacific seaboard from S Alaska S (E to the Cascades and Sierra Nevada) to NW & N Mexico (N Baja California, also on mainland S to Oaxaca); N populations migrate to S parts of breeding range, in Mexico extending to S Baja Califonia.
M. a. artemisiae Grinnell, 1909 – breeds from W Canada (interior British Columbia E to SC Manitoba) S in W USA (E from the Cascades and Sierra Nevada) to California, Nevada and New Mexico; migrates S to Mexico (S to Michoacán).
M. a. ater (Boddaert, 1783) – breeds from SE Canada (S Ontario E to Newfoundland) S throughout E USA to C Texas, Gulf Coast and C Florida, and in E Mexico S to Tamaulipas; winters in Florida and in Mexico S to Oaxaca.
Also breeds in Yukon (NW Canada); race undetermined, possibly artemisiae.