large tortoiseshell (Nymphalis polychloros), mourning cloak (Nymphalis antiopa), comma butterfly (Polygonia c-album), map butterfly (Araschnia levana)
1. Vanessa polychloros = large tortoiseshell (Nymphalis polychloros)
2. Vanessa antiopa = mourning cloak (Nymphalis antiopa)
3. Polygonia C-album = comma butterfly (Polygonia c-album)
4. Araschnia levana = map butterfly (Araschnia levana)
Plate from Die Schmetterlinge Deutschlands mit besonderer Berücksichtigung ihrer Biologie, Bd. 1-4, by K. Eckstein
Date Published [1913-1923) in Stuttgart, Germany by K.G. Lutz' Verlag.
Source http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/39412 (also available on the Internet Archive https://archive.org/details/dieschmetterling14ecks).
Author Karl Eckstein
The large tortoiseshell or blackleg tortoiseshell (Nymphalis polychloros) is a butterfly of the family Nymphalidae.
Nymphalis antiopa, known as the mourning cloak in North America and the Camberwell beauty in Britain, is a large butterfly native to Eurasia and North America.
The comma butterfly (Polygonia c-album) is a species of butterfly belonging to the family Nymphalidae. Its irregular wing edges are characteristic of the Polygonia genus, which is why they are commonly called anglewings. It is found in northern Africa and across Europe from Portugal through Asia as far as Japan.
The map butterfly (Araschnia levana) is a butterfly of the Nymphalidae family. It is common throughout the lowlands of central and eastern Europe, and is expanding its range in western Europe.