Genus: Lonchura (Munias, Mannikins and Silverbills) - Wiki
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Genus: Lonchura Sykes, 1832
[Photo] Scaly-breasted Munia (Lonchura punctulata). Sembawang grassland, Singapore. May 29, 2005. Source: Flickr (www.flickr.com/photos/lipkee/1712619427/). Author: Lip Kee (www.flickr.com/photos/lipkee/).
The Munias, Mannikins and Silverbills are small passerine birds in the genus Lonchura of the estrildid finch family. They are resident breeding birds in Africa, South Asia from India and Sri Lanka east to the Indonesia and the Philippines.
Some of the Lonchura species were formerly placed in Spermestes.
They are small gregarious birds which feed mainly on seeds, usually in relatively open habitats, preferring to feed on the ground or on reeds and grasses. The nest is a large domed grass structure into which 4-10 white eggs are laid. Some species also build communal roosting nests for overnight rest.
The species in this genus are similar in size and structure, with stubby bills, stocky bodies and long tails. Most are 10-12 cm in length. Plumage is usually a combination of browns, black and white, with the sexes similar, but duller and less contrasted for immature birds.
The similarities within this group and the existence of subspecies with differing vocalisations and plumage mean that some races may be elevated to species status. African and Indian Silverbill are now usually considered distinct species, and the two races of Black-throated Munia are often also split.
The Munias are popular in the bird trade and many freed or escaped birds have formed feral colonies in different pockets across the world.
The Red Munia Estrilda amandava and Green Munia Estrilda formosa also take the name Munia, but are from the Estrilda genus.
- Madagascar Munia, Lonchura nana
- African Silverbill, Lonchura cantans
- Indian Silverbill, Lonchura malabarica also known as White-throated Munia
- Grey-headed Silverbill, Lonchura griseicapilla
- Bronze Mannikin, Lonchura cucullata also known as Bronze Munia
- Black-and-white Mannikin, Lonchura bicolor also known as Black-and-white Munia
- Brown-backed Mannikin, Lonchura nigriceps also known as Brown-backed Munia
- Magpie Mannikin, Lonchura fringilloides also known as Magpie Munia
- White-rumped Munia, Lonchura striata
- Javan Munia, Lonchura leucogastroides
- Dusky Munia, Lonchura fuscans
- Black-faced Munia, Lonchura molucca
- Black-throated Munia, Lonchura kelaarti also known as Jerdon's Mannikin
- Scaly-breasted Munia, Lonchura punctulata also known as Nutmeg Mannikin or Spice Finch
- White-bellied Munia, Lonchura leucogastra
- Streak-headed Munia, Lonchura tristissima
- Black-headed Munia, Lonchura atricapilla also known as Chestnut Munia
- Tricoloured Munia, Lonchura malacca
- White-capped Munia, Lonchura ferruginosa
- Cream-bellied Munia, Lonchura pallidiventer
- Five-colored Munia, Lonchura quinticolor
- White-headed Munia, Lonchura maja
- Pale-headed Munia, Lonchura pallida
- Grand Munia, Lonchura grandis
- Grey-banded Munia, Lonchura vana
- Grey-crowned Munia, Lonchura nevermanni
- Hooded Munia, Lonchura spectabilis
- Grey-headed Munia, Lonchura caniceps
- Mottled Munia, Lonchura hunsteini
- New Ireland Munia, Lonchura forbesi
- New Hanover Munia, Lonchura nigerrima
- Yellow-rumped Munia, Lonchura flaviprymna
- Chestnut-breasted Munia, Lonchura castaneothorax
- Black Munia, Lonchura stygia
- Black-breasted Munia, Lonchura teerinki
- Snow Mountain Munia, Lonchura montana
- Alpine Munia, Lonchura monticola
- Bismarck Munia, Lonchura melaena
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