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Striped Hyena (Hyaena hyaena) - Wiki latin dict size=28   common dict size=512
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Striped Hyena (Hyaena hyaena) - Wiki

Striped Hyena
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

[Photo] Striped Hyena (Hyaena hyaena). Deutsch: Streifenhy??ne. Quelle: Aufgenommen am 31.05.2004 im Tierpark Berlin. Fotograf: Martin Bayer (http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benutzer:Mbayer)
Copyright (C) 2004 Martin Bayer
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".


The Striped Hyena (Hyaena hyaena) is closely related to the Brown Hyena. It lives in Africa, the Middle East, Pakistan and western India. It is extinct in Europe, but can occasionally be spotted in Anatolia, Turkey. Striped Hyenas are largely scavengers, but will also eat small animals, fruit and insects. Larger subspecies are known to hunt animals as large as wild boar. They are nomadic, moving from water hole to water hole, but never straying more than 6 miles from one. Striped hyenas hunt in solitude but do congregate in small family groups. Like many other animals of hot climates, their ears radiate heat.

The striped hyena is generally considered solitary, but has some social organization. It forages individually and is rarely seen in groups. It does, however, associate in small family groups at the den. The striped hyena live in the tropical savanna, grasslands, Semi-desert, scrub forest, and woodland.

Subspecies
5 subspecies, differentiated by pelage and morphometric differences have been identified.

Hyaena hyaena syriaca; Middle East
Hyaena hyaena sultana; Arabian Penninsula
Hyaena hyaena dubbah; Northeast Africa
Hyaena hyaena barbara (de Blainville, 1844); Norwest Africa
Hyaena hyaena hyaena (Linnaeus, 1758); India

Appearance
The Striped hyena has grayish-brown fur all over, with black stripes on their legs, torso, head and back. Their muzzle and ears are entirely black. They have a medium sized mane on their neck and shoulders. The striped hyena can erect the long hair on its mane and appear 38% bigger, which it does when it feels threatened. The Striped Hyena has a life span 10-12 years, but can live longer than this when kept in captivity.

A large, powerful animal, the striped hyena is covered in pale tan to greyish fur, which is usually quite shaggy. Black stripes slide down its sides in a vertical arrangement, and the muzzle/face is usually dark with a black throat patch on the underside of the neck. From the nape of its neck down to the rump, the back is covered by a thick, erectile mane. This mane can be raised to make the hyena look quite large, and is used in displays against other striped hyenas. Striped hyenas frequently grab and shake each other by the neck in mock fighting rituals. The legs are long, and also striped, while the body and neck are thick and heavy-set. The tail is fluffy and reaches the hocks.

Striped hyenas weigh from 57 to 90 pounds (26-41 kg). Length is about 4 to 5 feet (1.2-1.45m) from head to tail, and they stand about 2.2 to 2.5 feet (66-75cm) tall at the shoulder. There is not much difference between the sizes of the male and female.

Habitat
From Morocco and Senegal to Tanzania, across Asia Minor, the Arabian Peninsula, all the way to Iran, Afghanistan,Pakistan and even into Eastern India as well as southern India. Striped hyenas inhabit open country, as well as the forests of India and the seashore, scavenging on animals which wash up from the sea. The hyenas are mainly active at night, resting by day under protruding rocks. Prey includes mammalian carrion, tortoise, porcupine and wild pigs as well as the goats, sheep, donkeys, and horses of northern herdsmen, which tends to bring the hyenas into conflict with people. They will also eat insects, small animals such as mice, and fruit. Indeed, they often raid melon patches in Israel, bringing them into conflict with farmers. Striped hyena can travel large distances looking for carrion, and some populations are semi-nomadic.

Reproduction
Females tend to come into sexual maturity at about 2-3 years, though pregnant females of only 15 months have been reported in the wild. The estrous cycle is about 45-50 days long, though the female is only fertile for one day during that time. Females can come into heat at any time of the year. Once the female has mated, gestation of the young takes about 88-92 days, and anywhere from 1-5 young are born, though usually there are only 2 cubs. Cubs open their eyes from 5-9 days after birth and start eating solid meat at 30 days, though they will continue to nurse for 4-5 months. Adults will bring food home to the den, which is usually in a crevice between rocks or in a hole dug by the parents.

Relationship with other predators
The striped hyenas habit of feasting on the kills of other predators inevitably results in some form of confrontation, ranging from threatening posturing to downright violence. In Africa the striped hyena is invariably dominated in feeding disputes against the larger apex carnivores such as lions and spotted hyena (though hyena biologist Hans Kruuk has stated that there does appear to be some form of 'attraction' between the two hyenid species). Disputes against lone predators such as leopards and cheetahs are more difficult to predict, the outcome usually depending on who intimidates who first. In India and the Middle East, the striped hyena will sometimes enter conflict with wolves. Though individually stronger, the hyenas solitary nature puts it at a disadvantage against the more social wolf. Striped hyena in India may dominate very young tigers, but generally wait until an adult is gone to scavange from their kills.

Threats in the wild
While the striped hyena has no natural predators, it does often come into conflict with people. Striped hyenas have been known to kill human beings, especially children, and they are often poisoned and trapped for preying on livestock or raiding farms. Some of their body parts are also believed to have medicinal value. Striped hyenas have also become endangered through habitat loss.

Conservation Status
The striped hyena is listed as "near threatened". Although it seems to be rather compatible with human populations, the large predators whose kills it relies on for scavenging are not. It is often hunted or poisoned throughout its range, and although it has a fairly large population, it is scattered over a wide area and often isolated from other populations.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Striped_Hyena
The text in this page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article shown in above URL. It is used under the GNU Free Documentation License. You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the GFDL.

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