Coyote (Canis latrans) - Wiki
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[Photo] Coyote (Canis latrans) in the San Gabriel Mountains, California, USA. Taken along highway 39 between San Gabriel and Morris Reservoirs. Date 2003-06-07. Author Justin Johnsen (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Justin.Johnsen)
The coyote (Canis latrans) also known as the prairie wolf) is a mammal of the order carnivora. They are found throughout North and Central America, ranging from Panama in the south, north through Mexico, the United States, and Canada. They occur as far north as Alaska and all but the most northern portions of Canada. There are currently 19 recognized subspecies, with 16 in Canada, Mexico and the United States, and 3 in Central America. The name "coyote" was borrowed from Mexican Spanish, which is itself borrowed from the Nahuatl word coy??tl (IPA [??kojoːt??]). Its Latin name Canis Latrans means "barking dog".
The colour of the coyote's pelt varies from grayish brown to a yellowish gray on the upper parts, while the throat and belly are white. The forelegs, sides of head, muzzle and feet are reddish brown. The back has fulvous colored underfur and long, black-tipped guard hairs that form a black dorsal stripe and a dark cross on the shoulder area. The black tipped tail has a scent gland located on its dorsal base. Coyotes moult once a year, starting in May with light hair loss and ending in July after heavy shedding. The ears are proportionately large in relation to the head, while the feet are relatively small in relation to the rest of the body. Mountain dwelling coyotes tend to be dark furred while desert coyotes tend to be more yellowish in color.
Coyotes typically grow from 75-100 centimeters (29.53-39.37 inches) in length and on average, weigh from 7-21 kilograms (15.4-46.2 pounds). Northern coyotes are typically larger than southern subspecies, with the largest coyotes on record weighing 74¾ pounds and measuring over five feet in total length. The coyote's dental formula is I 3/3, C 1/1, Pm 4/4, M usually 2/2, occasionally 3/3, 3/2, or 2/3 X 2 = 40, 42, or 44. Normal spacing between the upper canine teeth is 1 1/8 to 1 3/8 inches and 1 to 1 1/4 inches between the lower canine teeth.
During pursuit, a coyote may reach speeds up to 43 mph, and can jump over 4 meters.
Coyotes tend not to roam in large packs as wolves do, though they have been observed to travel in small, single sexed groups. These groups are usually not as unified as wolf packs, and members will readily disperse and regroup. The collective name for a group of coyotes is a band, a pack, or a rout. Coyotes are primarily nocturnal but can occasionally be seen during daylight hours. Coyotes were once essentially diurnal, but have adapted to more nocturnal behavior with pressure from humans (McClennen et al, 2001).
Coyotes are capable of digging their own burrows, though they often appropriate the burrows of woodchucks or American badgers. Coyote territorial ranges can be as much as 19 kilometers in diameter around the den and travel occurs along fixed trails.
In areas where wolves have been exterminated, coyotes usually flourish. The settlement of New England for example ended in the destruction of the resident wolves, resulting in coyotes replacing them and filling the empty biological niche. Coyotes appear much abler than wolves to live among people.
In the wild, coyotes have been known to live a maximum of 10 years and 18 years in captivity.
Female coyotes are monoestrous and remain in heat for 2-5 days between late January and late March, during which mating occurs. Once the female chooses a partner, the mated pair may remain temporarily monogamous for a number of years. Depending on geographic location, spermatogenesis in males takes around 54 days and occurs between January and February. The gestation period lasts from 60 to 63 days. Litter size ranges from 1 to 19 pups; though the average is 6. The pups weigh approximately 250 grams at birth and are initially blind and limp-eared. The eyes open and ears erect after 10 days. After 21-28 days after birth, the young begin to emerge from the den and by 35 days they are fully weaned. Both parents feed the weaned cubs with regurgitated food. Male pups will disperse from their dens between months 6 and 9, while females usually remain with the parents and form the basis of the pack. The cubs attain full growth between 9 and 12 months. Sexual maturity is reached by 12 months.
Coyotes will sometimes mate with domestic dogs, usually in areas like Texas and Oklahoma where the coyotes are plentiful and the breeding season is extended because of the warm weather. The resulting hybrids called coydogs maintain the coyote's predatory nature, along with the dog's lack of timidity toward humans, making them a usually more serious threat to livestock than pure blooded animals. This cross breeding has the added effecct of confusing the breeding cycle. Coyotes usually breed only once a year, while coydogs will breed year-round, producing many more pups than a wild coyote. A distinguishable feature in a coydog is the ears and tail.
Coyotes have also been known on occasion to mate with wolves. The offspring, known as a coywolf is generally intermediate in size to both parents, being larger than a pure coyote, but smaller than a pure wolf. A study showed that of 100 coyotes collected in Maine, 22 had half or more wolf ancestry, and one was 89 percent wolf. A theory has been proposed that the large eastern coyotes in Canada are actually hybrids of the smaller western coyotes and wolves that met and mated decades ago as the coyotes moved toward New England from their earlier western ranges. The red wolf is considered by some to be a wolf/coyote hybrid, due to its habit of readily mating with coyotes and the fact that it carries no unique genetic trait that would make it distinct from coyotes and grey wolves.
Hearing a coyote is much more common than seeing one. The calls a coyote make are high-pitched and variously described as howls, yips, yelps and barks. These calls may be a long rising and falling note (a howl) or a series of short notes (yips). These calls are most often heard at dusk or night, less often during the day. Although these calls are made throughout the year, they are most common during the spring mating season and in the fall when the pups leave their families to establish new territories.
In rural areas, coyotes will respond to human calls. This is most often after the coyotes have started a howling session. They will also respond to recorded howls. In some of these areas, the coyotes will stop and wait for the humans to stop before resuming their howling session, once they've figured out that it isn't another coyote that has been calling to them. In areas where the coyotes have grown accustomed to humans calling back to them, they tend to continue with simpler calls back to the humans and return to more complex calls when the humans get tired of calling to them. Playing a recorded wolf howl will make them stop for up to an hour before they start in again, probably because wolves prey upon coyotes.
Diet and hunting
Coyotes are versatile carnivores with a 90% mammalian diet. They primarily eat small mammals, such as eastern cottontails, thirteen-lined ground squirrels, and white-footed mice, though they will occasionally eat birds, snakes, large insects and other large invertebrates. Though they will consume large amounts of carrion, they tend to prefer fresh meat. Part of the coyote's success as a species is it's dietary adaptability. As such, coyotes have been known to readily eat human garbage and household pets. Fruits and vegetables are a significant part of the coyote's diet in the autumn and winter months.
Coyote's shift their hunting techniques in accordance to their prey. When hunting small animals such as mice, they slowly stalk through the grass and use their acute sense of smell to track down the prey. When the prey is located, the coyote's stiffen and pounce on the prey in a cat-like manner. Coyotes will commonly work in teams when hunting large ungulates such as deer. Coyotes may take turns in baiting and pursuing the deer to exhaustion, or they may drive it towards a hidden member of the pack. When attacking large prey coyotes attack from the rear and the flanks of their prey. Occasionally they also grab the neck and head, pulling the animal down to the ground. Coyotes are persistent hunters, with successful attacks sometimes lasting from 14 minutes to about 21 hours; even unsuccessful ones can vary from 2 minutes to more than 8 hours before the coyotes give up. Depth of snow can affect the likelihood of a successful kill.
The average distance covered in a night's hunting is 4 km.
Relationships with other predators
Since the Yellowstone Gray Wolf Reintroduction in 1995 and 1996, the local coyote population went through a dramatic restructuring. Until the wolves returned, Yellowstone National Park had one of the densest and most stable coyote populations in America due to a lack of human impacts. Two years after the wolf reintroductions, 50% of the pre-wolf population of coyotes had been reduced, through both competitive exclusion and predation. Yellowstone coyotes have had to shift their territories as a result, moving from open meadows to steep terrain. Carcasses in the open no longer attract coyotes as much, seeing as when a coyote is chased on flat terrain, it is often killed. They feel more secure on steep terrain where they will often lead a pursuing wolf downhill. As the wolf comes after it, the coyote will turn around and runs uphill. Wolves, being heavier, cannot stop and the coyote gets a huge lead. Though physical confrontations between the two species are usually dominated by the larger wolves, coyotes have been known to attack wolves if they outnumber them. Both species will kill each others cubs given the opportunity.
Cougars sometimes kill coyotes for food. The coyote's instinctive fear of cougars has lead to the development of anti-coyote sound systems which repell coyotes from public places by replicating the sounds of a cougar.
In sympatric populations of coyotes and red foxes, fox territories tend to be located largely outside of coyote territories. The principal cause of this separation is believed to be active avoidance of coyotes by the foxes. Interactions between the two species vary in nature, ranging from active antagonism, to indifference. The majority of aggressive encounters are initiated by coyotes, and there are few reports of red foxes acting aggressively toward coyotes except when attacked or when their pups were approached. Conversely, foxes and coyotes have sometimes been seen feeding together.
Coyotes will sometimes form a symbiotic relationship with American badgers. Due to the fact that coyotes are not very effective at digging rodents out of their burrows, they will chase the animals while they are above ground. Badgers on the other hand are not fast runners, but are well-adapted to digging. When hunting together, they effectively leave little escape for prey in the area.
In some areas, coyotes share their ranges with bobcats. It is rare for these two similairly sized species to physically confront one another, though bobcat populations tend to diminish in areas with high coyote densities. Coyotes have been known to occasionally kill bobcats, but in all cases, the victims were relatively small specimens, such as adult females and juveniles.
Relationship with humans
Adaptation to human environment
Despite being extensively hunted, the coyote is one of the few medium-to-large-sized animals that has enlarged its range since human encroachment began (another is the raccoon). It originally ranged primarily in the western half of North America, but it has adapted readily to the changes caused by human occupation and, since the early 19th century, has been steadily extending its range. Sightings now commonly occur in California, Oregon, New England, and eastern Canada. Coyotes have moved into most of the areas of North America formerly occupied by wolves, and are often observed foraging in suburban trashcans.
Coyotes also thrive in suburban settings and even some urban (city) ones. A study by wildlife ecologists at Ohio State University yielded some surprising findings in this regard. Researchers studied coyote populations in Chicago over a six-year period (2000???2006), proposing that coyotes have adapted well to living in densely populated urban environments while avoiding contact with humans. They found, among other things, that urban coyotes tend to live longer than their rural counterparts, kill rodents and small pets, and live anywhere from parks to industrial areas. The researchers estimate that there are up to 2,000 coyotes living in "the greater Chicago area" and that this circumstance may well apply to many other urban landscapes in North America. In Washington DC's Rock Creek Park, coyotes den and raise their young, and scavenge roadkill and rodents. "I don't see it as a bad thing for a park," the assigned National Park Service biologist told a reporter for Smithsonian Magazine (March 2006). "I see it as good for keeping animal populations in control, like the squirrels and the mice." As a testament to the coyote's habitat adaptability, a coyote (known as "Hal the Central Park Coyote") was even captured in Manhattan's Central Park in March 2006 after being chased by city wildlife officials for two days.
Attacks on humans
Coyote attacks on humans have increased within the past 5 years in California. Data from USDA Wildlife Services, the California Department of Fish & Game, and other sources show that while 41 attacks occurred during the period of 1988-1997, 48 attacks were verified from 1998 through 2003. The majority of these incidents occurred in Southern California near the suburban-wildland interface.
Due to an absence of harassment by residents, urban coyotes lose their natural fear of humans, which is further worsened by people intentionally feeding coyotes. In such situations, some coyotes begin to act aggressively toward humans, chasing joggers and bicyclists, confronting people walking their dogs, and stalking small children.
However, there is currently only one recorded fatal attack on a human. In 1981 in Glendale, California, a coyote attacked a toddler, who despite being rescued by her father, died in surgery due to bloodloss and a broken neck.
Livestock and pet predation
Coyotes are the most abundant and often considered the most serious livestock predators in the western United States, causing the majority of sheep, goat and cattle losses.
Coyotes will typically bite the throat just behind the jaw and below the ear when attacking adult sheep or goats, with death commonly resulting from suffocation. Blood loss is usually a secondary cause of death. Calves, and heavily fleeced sheep are killed by attacking the flanks or hind-quarters, causing shock and bloodloss. When attacking smaller prey, such as young lambs and kids, the kill is made by biting the skull and spinal regions, causing massive tissue and ossular damage. Small or young prey may be completely carried off, leaving only blood as evidence of a kill. Surplus killing, or killing more prey than can be consumed, is common with many kills not being fed upon. Coyotes will usually leave the hide and most of the skeleton of larger animals relatively intact unless food is scarce, in which case they may leave only the largest bones. Scattered bits of wool, skin and other parts are characteristic where coyotes feed extensively on larger carcasses.
Coyote predation can usually be distinguished from dog or coydog predation by the fact that coyotes partially consume their victims. Tracks are also an important factor in distinguishing coyote from dog predation. Coyote tracks tend to be more oval-shaped and compact than those of domestic dogs, plus, claw marks are less prominent and the tracks tend to follow a straight line more closely than those of dogs. With the exception of sighthounds, most dogs of similar weight to coyotes have a slightly shorter stride. Coyote kills can be distinguished from wolf kills by the fact that there is less damage to the underlying tissues. Also, coyote scats tend to be smaller than wolf scats.
Although it is rare for coyotes to attack humans, coyotes are often attracted to dog food and animals that are small enough to appear as prey. Items like garbage, pet food and sometimes even feeding stations for birds and squirrels will attract coyotes into backyards. Approximately 3 to 5 pets attacked by coyotes are brought into the Animal Urgent Care hospital of South Orange County each week, the majority of which are dogs, since cats typically do not survive the attacks. Scat analysis collected near Claremont, California revealed that coyotes relied heavily on pets as a food source in winter and spring. At one location in Southern California, coyotes began relying on a colony of feral cats as a food source. Over time, the coyotes killed most of the cats and then continued to eat the cat food placed daily at the colony site by citizens who were maintaining the cat colony. Coyotes will usually attack smaller or similar sized dogs, though they have been known to occasionally attack large, powerful breeds such as Rhodesian ridgebacks and Rottweilers. Even with a size advantage, large dogs are usually at a disadvantage against coyotes in physical confrontations, due to the fact that coyotes have larger canine teeth and are generally more practiced in hostile encounters.
In the early days of European settlement in North Dakota, beavers were the most valued and sought after furbearers, though other species were also taken, including coyotes. Currently, coyotes are still an important furbearer in the region. During the 1983-86 seasons, North Dakota buyers purchased an average of 7,913 pelts annually, for an average annual combined return to takers of $255,458. In 1986-87, South Dakota buyers purchased 8,149 pelts for a total of $349,674 to takers.
The harvest of coyote skins in Texas has varied over the past few decades, but has generally followed a downward trend. A few conservationist groups have assosciated the declining harvest of coyote pelts to an over-harvest. This contradicts the fact that if a harvest reduction were due to declining coyote numbers, one would expect prices per pelt to increase in the face of a stable demand and declining supply. Fashion, and the changing custom of wearing fur garments, may be significant among these factors. While the European Union's ban on furs from North America is expected to have a major impact on the fur market in the United States, it's influence on coyote harvest in Texas may not be significant, seeing as Texan coyote populations show no sign of decline.
Today, coyote fur is still used for full coats and trim and is particularly popular for men’s coats.
Character in mythology
Many myths from Native American peoples include a character whose name is translated into English as "Coyote". He can play the role of trickster or culture hero (or both), and also often appears in creation myths and just-so stories.
Contemporary cultural references
Main article: Coyotes in popular culture
The Coyote is a popular figure in folklore and popular culture. Reference may invoke either the animal or the mythological figure. Traits commonly described in pop culture appearances include inventiveness, mischievousness, and evasiveness. By far the best known representation is the animated Wile E. Coyote.
Mexican Coyote, Canis latrans cagottis
San Pedro Martir Coyote, Canis latrans clepticus
Salvador Coyote, Canis latrans dickeyi
South-eastern Coyote, Canis latrans frustor
Belize Coyote, Canis latrans goldmani
Honduras Coyote, Canis latrans hondurensis
Durango Coyote, Canis latrans impavidus
Northern Coyote, Canis latrans incolatus
Tiburon Island Coyote, Canis latrans jamesi
Plains Coyote, Canis latrans latrans
Mountain Coyote, Canis latrans lestes
Mearns Coyote, Canis latrans mearnsi
Lower Rio Grande Coyote, Canis latrans microdon
California Valley Coyote, Canis latrans ochropus
Peninsula Coyote, Canis latrans peninsulae
Texas Plains Coyote,Canis latrans texensis
North-eastern Coyote, Canis latrans thamnos
Northwest Coast Coyote, Canis latrans umpquensis
Colima Coyote, Canis latrans vigilis
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