White-spotted octopus (Callistoctopus macropus)
Callistoctopus macropus, also known as the white-spotted octopus, grass scuttle, or grass octopus, was originally described by Risso in 1826 off of Nice. Its typical habitat is near-shore, however sometimes it can be found deeper in the Mediterranean Sea. In addition, several species similar to Callistoctopus macropus live in shallow tropical and temperate waters throughout the world. The Callistoctopus macropus is actually described in 2003 as the "Callistoctopus macropus species complex," since there are at least 12 species of octopus with the red and white-spotted morphology and similar activity patterns. This octopus has a planktonic post-hatching phase and then spends its adult life on the ocean bottom. This octopus has long arms, with the first arm pair being the longest and stoutest, and has shallow webbing among the arms. It also has a higher sucker count than most octopuses. Its activity is predominantly to exclusively nocturnal. While in the daylight of an aquarium its camouflage seems poor, it is extremely successful at night in its natural environment.