Wild boar (Sus scrofa)
The wild boar inhabits primary and secondary forest and will also forage in adjacent cleared or agricultural areas. In parts of Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore the species occurs in mangroves. The wild boar is a food source for tigers and leopards.
In parts of Southeast Asia Sus scrofa has been domesticated, giving rise to pigs of different form. The truly wild boar however, is identified by its greater size, and by the mane of bristly hairs extending along the back. The mane becomes erect when the animal is feeling threatened.
Populations of this species in Indochina, Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore are smaller than are found in other countries, and these populations probably represent a separate subspecies Sus scrofa vittatus.
Wild boars are generally to be found in groups of up to 20, though adult males are often solitary. Adult populations can vary from grey to black to reddish brown. Juveniles are brownish with distinctive horizontal stripes. They forage mainly on roots, tubers, young shoots and plantation crops. In mangroves they feed on carrion, arthropods and molluscs.
In forested areas, wild boars habitually bathe and roll in mud: their wallows gradually deepen and fill with water as successive boars revisit the same muddy pool. This habit may help to rid the boars of parasites, such as ticks and mites, as well as leeches.
The species ranges throughout the Southeast Asian mainland to Sumatra and Java. In Borneo and other easterly islands the species has been introduced.
In Singapore the range of this species has expanded considerably since around 2005, and is now widespread in forest and secondary scrub.