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Go Zebra! A lion chasing zebra the biker! latin dict size=25   common dict size=512
Image Info Original File Name: adv.jpg Resolution: 599x448 File Size: 151087 Bytes Upload Time: 2004:05:07 17:51:23
Author Name (E-mail): funny (from@funny.animal.photos)
Subject Go Zebra! A lion chasing zebra the biker!

Go Zebra! A lion chasing zebra the biker!; Image ONLY
Email : E-Card | Poster | Web Master    Delete   Edit Info   Admin

Description
Go Zebra! A lion chasing zebra the biker!

jinsuk
======
"really funny"

asadzamir786@yahoo.com
======================
"i think this picture is a good picture of a lionchsing the zebre."

???
===
"Very funny! I've never seen a zebra riding a motorbike before! "

thea cooper
===========
"been all over this site burst out laughing when i saw this!!"


===
"Very Funny!!"

nathanielhall75@hotmail.com
===========================
"hahaha lol so funny"

marie
=====
"that is absolutely HILARIOUS!!! ROTFL!!"

jehhd
=====
"jdjkbckjehfvjeovj"

marie
=====
"dear jehhd. Go to typing skool"

marie
=====
"LOL!!!"

Joy to the world
================
"I am so um um um um, AMAZED!
That this is so stuped like come on how many zebras can ride a motor cycle"

to funny
========
" I hate mylefg I poop my pants"

poo poo
=======
"I have a ssaggy butt and I lick it 24 hours a day"

pee wee
=======
"wat the hell!!!! I was lookin 4 frogs and this is wat i get. LOL @ zebra though. This Zebra needz 2 go to skool"

Clarissa
========
"Im sorry.. i must have no sense of humor... this isn't funny"

Trish & Frank
=============
"We thought this was halarious! We own two zebras."

assem 78@yahoo.com
==================
"it is just to fun...I am sure "no""

deefilly
========
"This is one of the funnest pics I've ever seen...great work!!! Love your sense of humor!"

stardust1990
============
"Go d zebra.. Lol"

juddybuddy36
============
" !!! Does that zebra have a licence?!!!"

Comments
your-name Delete
DO YOU HAVE ANY CAT POOP PICTURES
guest Delete
wat the heck are u talking about your-name

anyways, thats a hilarious pic how did you do it???
sup man Delete
what the hell are you talking about quest u dont no notin. That pic is sick
The burger Delete
go zebra it's your birthday! go zebra it's your birthday! go zebra it's your birthday! go zebra it's your birthday! go zebra it's your birthday! go zebra it's your birthday! go zebra it's your birthday! go zebra it's your birthday! go zebra it's your birthday! go zebra it's your birthday! go zebra it's your birthday! go zebra it's your birthday! go zebra it's your birthday! go zebra it's your birthday! go zebra it's your birthday! go zebra it's your birthday! go zebra it's your birthday! go zebra it's your birthday! go zebra it's your birthday! go zebra it's your birthday!go zebra it's your birthday!go zebra it's your birthday!go zebra it's your birthday!go zebra it's your birthday!go zebra it's your birthday! go zebra it's your birthday! go zebra it's your birthday! go zebra it's your birthday! go zebra it's your birthday! go zebra it's your birthday! go zebra it's your birthday! go zebra it's your birthday!go zebra it's your birthday!go zebra it's your birthday! woooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo!!!!!!!!!! pooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo!
The burger Delete
I Smell a poo! not of "A"
The burger Delete
does any 1 wanna chat?
The burger Delete
doggy@hotmail.co.uk
tyler333 Delete
hey nice picture. i think it is very cool... if you can send me some at ubcool2ic@aol.com
annie rocs!! Delete
hello! this pic sucs!! na its cool!
wildthing Delete
go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go
wildthing Delete
ZEBRA

Equus grevyi
(Grevy's zebra) -looks like it-

Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Subphylum Vertebrata Class Mammalia Order Perissodactyla Family Equidae Species Equus grevyi

Geographic Range
The Grevy's zebra is found in southeastern Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia.

Biogeographic Regions:
ethiopian (native ).

Habitat
Grevy's zebra inhabits dry desert regions and open grasslands.

Terrestrial Biomes:
desert or dune ; savanna or grassland .

Physical Description
Mass
405 kg (average)
(891 lbs)

Grevy's zebra is 1350mm tall at the shoulder and 1250 -1500 mm high at the withers. It has distinctive striping pattern, with black stripes separated by narrow white bands. Stipes continue down the legs to the hooves. There is a distinctive chevron pattern on the hind quarters. The belly is white or ash gray. The head and neck of this species are robust.

Some key physical features:
endothermic ; bilateral symmetry .

Reproduction
Grevy's zebras reach puberty at about four years of age. Females experience a 2-9 day estrus period every 19-33 days. During their estrus, they are recptive to mating for 2-3 days. Gestation requires about 390 days. A single young is typically born in August or September, but mating and births can occur year round. The newborn zebra first stands at 6-14 minutes. It is able to walk within a half an hour of birth, and can run for short distances by the time is is 45 minutes old.

Newly born zebras apparently undergo a critical period of imprinting during which they must learn who their mother is. Since the young zebra will follow anything that moves, new mothers are very aggressive toward other mares for the first few hours after they give birth. This aggression prevents the foal from accidently imprinting upon another female. The young nurse for 275 days.

Key reproductive features:
gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual .

Behavior
Unlike other zebra species, Grevy's zebras do not form permanent herds, and social bonds between any two adult animals seem to be temporary as well. Most adults live in social groups, either of stallions, of mares with their dependent foals, or in mixed sex groups.

Some males are solitary and territorial. Unlike territorial males in other species, Grevy's males are tolerant of other males who enter their territories. However, the non-resident males do not attempt to breed with females, nor do they interfere with the breeding male's activities.

The territories held by male Grevy's zebras are among the largest known for herbivores. The territories range in size from 2.7 to 10.2 square kilometers.

Key behaviors:
motile .

Food Habits
These zebras eat a variety of grasses and other plants.

Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
The Grevy's zebra has been used by native peoples for food and for its beautiful hide.

Conservation Status
IUCN Red List: [link]:
Endangered.

CITES: [link]:
Appendix I.
Grevy's zebra is of special concern for conservationists. It is listed as CITES appendix I, and is considered endangered by IUCN.

Other Comments
This species is the largest of the zebras. It may live up to 18 years in the wild, and captive animals have lived to a ripe age of 30 years old. These animals require less water and are less cold tolerant than other zebra species.

The striped hide of the zebra may function as a sort of camoflauge. It may help to break up the outline of the zebra, especially when the animal is viewed through the twigs and branches of bushes. Motionless zebra are nearly invisible to the human eye at night (from 5 -15 meters away, depending on the lighting conditions.)

LION

Panthera leo
(lion)

Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Subphylum Vertebrata Class Mammalia Order Carnivora Family Felidae Subfamily Pantherinae Species Panthera leo

Geographic Range
African lions (Panthera leo) live in most of sub-Saharan Africa except in desert and rainforest habitats. Lions were exterminated from South Africa and they remain only in Kruger and Kalahari Gemsbok National Parks. Lions once ranged throughout southwest Asia and north Africa. Asiatic lions (P. l. persica) belong to the single remaining subspecies in this region. Once roaming from Greece to central India, Asiatic lions persist in the Gir forest of northwest India. ("Asiatic Lion Information Center", 2001; Alden et al., 1998; Estes, 1993)

In addition to the asiatic subspecies, many taxonomists contend that there are five extant African subspecies. Each subspecies is identified by geographic region. Panthera leo senegalensis (west African or Senegalese lions), P. l. azandica (north east Congo lions), P. l. bleyenberghi (Katanga, Angolan, or south Congo lions), and P. l. krugeri (south African or Transvaal lions). Panthera leo krugeri includes Kalahari lions (sometimes denoted as P. l. verneyi). Lastly, there are East African lions (P. l. nubica). These animals have been categorized as Somali lions (P. l. somaliensis), Masai lions (P. l. massaicus), Serengeti lions (P. l. massaicus), Congo lions (P. l. hollisteri), and Abyssinian lions (P. l. roosevelti). It should be noted, however, that there is some debate as to the validity of the African subspecies classifications, leaving only the Asiatic subspecies, P. l. persica, uncontested. (O'Brien et al., 1987; Urban and West, 2002)

Biogeographic Regions:
palearctic (native ); oriental (native ); ethiopian (native ).

Habitat
Elevation
4240 m (high)
(13907.2 ft)

African lions live in plains or savanna habitat with a large prey base (mostly ungulates) and sufficient cover available. In these optimal habitats, lions are the second most abundant large predator, after spotted hyenas Crocuta crocuta. Lions can also live, with wider ranges, in most habitats except in tropical rainforests and in deserts. Lions can live in forested, shrubby, mountainous, and semi-desert habitats. They are capable of living at high altitudes. There is a lion population in the Bale Mountains of Ethiopia at 4,240 m.

Asiatic lions live in scrubland and teak forest in the small Gir Forest preserve of India. ("Asiatic Lion Information Center", 2001; Alden et al., 1998; Cat Specialist Group, 1996; Estes, 1993)

These animals are found in the following types of habitat:
temperate ; tropical ; terrestrial .

Terrestrial Biomes:
savanna or grassland ; forest ; scrub forest ; mountains .

Physical Description
Mass
126 to 272 kg
(277.2 to 598.4 lbs)


Length
2.40 to 3.30 m
(7.87 to 10.82 ft)

Lions are large cats with short, tawny coats, white underparts, and long tails with a black tuft at the end. They are sexually dimorphic and male lions are the only cats with manes. Three year-old male lions grow manes that vary in color from black to blond. Manes tend to be fuller in open habitats. Adult males typically weigh 189 kg; the heaviest male on record weighed 272 kg (Mount Kenya). Females weigh 126 kg on average. The average male height is 1.2 m and the average female height is 1.1 m. Length ranges from 2.4 to 3.3 m and tail length ranges from 0.6 to 1.0 m; the longest male lion recorded was 3.3 m.

Cubs have brown spots on a grayish coat until the age of three months; spots may remain on stomach, especially in east Africa. Albinism does occur in some populations, but there are no published records of melanism (black fur) in lions. Adult lions have 30 total teeth and adult females have four mammae. (Alden et al., 1998; Cat Specialist Group, 1996; Estes, 1993; Urban and West, 2002)

Asiatic lions (P. l. persica) are slightly smaller than African lions and have shorter manes, thicker elbow and tail tufts, and longitudinal skin folds on their stomachs. Although Asiatic lions are genetically distinct from African lions, the genetic difference between the two species is smaller than that between human races. ("Asiatic Lion Information Center", 2001)

Some key physical features:
endothermic ; bilateral symmetry .

Sexual dimorphism: male larger, ornamentation .

Reproduction
Breeding interval
Female lions tend to have cubs every 2 years. However, if a female's cubs are killed (usually by an intruding male lion), then she will come into estrus early and have more cubs.


Breeding season
Breeding peaks during the rainy season, but is year-round.


Number of offspring
1 to 6; avg. 3


Gestation period
3.50 months (average)


Time to weaning
7 to 10 months


Time to independence
16 months (low)


Age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
4 years (average)


Age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
5 years (average)

Lions breed year-round and are usually polygynous. It is estimated that lions copulate 3,000 times for every cub that survives over one year. One estrus out of every 5 results in a litter and lions mate approximately 2.2 times per hour for the 4 day estrus period. The first male member of a pride that reaches a female in heat has the mating priority over her. Fighting between pride members over females does not normally occur. (Estes, 1993)

Male lions are conspicuously large and showy because they have the opportunity to control the reproduction of many females when they rule over a pride. Males form coalitions with each other to increase their chances of pride takeover. The fierce competition among males and the social structure of a pride have led to infanticide by both males and females. Successful males that takeover a pride have about 2 years before another younger, stronger coalition will replace them. Pride takeover battles are often violent leading to severe injury or death of the losing lions.

It is to the successful male’s reproductive advantage to kill the suckling cubs of the defeated males. A nursing lioness that loses her cubs will come back into estrous within 2 to 3 weeks. The normal time between births is 2 years, which is the typical time for a male to rule a pride. Therfore, by killing all unweaned cubs at the time of pride takeover, males can ensure that they have some opportunity to father offspring of females who would otherwise not be available to them during their tenure as pride leaders. Females vigorously defend their cubs during a takeover and are sometimes killed also. (Estes, 1993; Packer and Pusey, 2001)

Mating systems:
polygynous ; cooperative breeder .

Female lions are polyestrous, breeding throughout the year and peaking in the rainy season. Female lions tend to have cubs every 2 years. However, if a female's cubs are killed (usually by an intruding male lion), then the female comes into estrus early and has more cubs. Females are able to breed at 4 years of age and males at 5 years. (Alden et al., 1998; Estes, 1993; Schaller, 1972)

One to six cubs are born after a 3.5 month gestation period. There is an interbirth interval of approximately twenty to thirty months. Newborn cubs weigh 1 to 2 kg. Eyes typically open by 11 days, cubs can walk by 15 days and are able to run by 1 month of age. Mother lions keep their cubs in hiding until they reach about 8 weeks of age. The cubs are weaned between 7 and 10 months, however they are dependent upon adults in the pride until they are at least 16 months old. (Estes, 1993; Schaller, 1972)

Key reproductive features:
iteroparous ; year-round breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization .

Females are mainly responsible for care of the young. Females nurse their young, but will also nurse the young of their female relatives in the pride if litters are born close together. Cub mortality is lowest when related females in the same pride synchronously reproduce and cross-suckle. Since synchronous reproduction is common in prides, cubs are often raised in cr??ches where the entire pride helps to raise several litters. (Estes, 1993; Urban and West, 2002)

Cubs are often left alone for more than one full day by the time they are 5 to 7 months old. This is a particularly vulnerable time for the cubs to be attacked by predators (often hyenas). Hungry mothers occasionally abandon weak cubs that can not keep up with the pride. (Estes, 1993)

Although males do not directly provide care for the young in a pride, they are important in the protection of the cubs from rival males. So long as a male maintains control over a pride, preventing another male from taking over, the cubs he has sired are at lower risk of infanticide. (Packer and Pusey, 2001)

Parental investment:
no parental involvement; altricial ; male parental care ; female parental care ; pre-fertilization (protecting: female); pre-hatching/birth (provisioning: female, protecting: female); pre-weaning/fledging (provisioning: female, protecting: male, female); pre-independence (provisioning: male, female, protecting: male, female); post-independence association with parents; inherits maternal/paternal territory.

Lifespan/Longevity
Longest known lifespan in wild
18 years (high)


Longest known lifespan in captivity
30 years (high)


Expected lifespan in wild
14 years (average)


Expected lifespan in captivity
30 years (high); avg. 13 years

Female lions typically live longer than males. Males reach their prime between five and nine years but few males survive past ten years of age. Some males have survived until 16 in the wild. Females normally live until 15 or 16 years. In the Serengeti, females live up to 18 years. In captivity, lions live approximately 13 years. The oldest known lion was 30 years old. (Cat Specialist Group, 1996; Estes, 1993; Urban and West, 2002)

Adult lions have no predators, but are vulnerable to humans, starvation, and attacks from other lions. Infanticide is an important contributor to cub mortality and cub mortality increases when prey is scarce. (Schaller, 1972)

Female Asiatic lions live an average of 17 to 18 years, with a maximum of 21 years. Male Asiatic lions generally live for 16 years. Adult Asiatic lions have a less than 10% mortality rate. In the Gir forest, 33% of cubs die during their first year of life. ("Asiatic Lion Information Center", 2001)

Behavior
Territory Size
20 to 400 km^2

Lion prides are fission-fusion societies; pride members come and go and are rarely all together at once. There can be anywhere from 2 to 40 lions in a pride. In Kruger and Serengeti National Parks, pride size was on average 13 lions. The average composition of these prides was 1.7 adult males, 4.5 adult females, 3.8 subadults, and 2.8 juveniles. (Estes, 1993; Packer and Pusey, 2001)

The resident males of a pride are immigrants that have forcefully gained control of the pride from the previous male members. In order to successfully take over a pride, males form coalitions, usually consisting of brothers. Adolescent males leave their natal pride when their fathers (or the new male leaders of the pride) begin to view them as competition at about 2.5 years. These males lead nomadic lives for two to three years, then form a coalition and seek a pride to take over. Male coalitions of 2 tend to rule a pride for no more than two and a half years, long enough for one set of cubs to be reared. Coalitions of three and four tend to rule a pride for longer than 3 years. Coalitions of more than four are rare, most likely because large coalitions are difficult to keep together. (Estes, 1993; Packer, Scheel, and Pusey, 1990)

Prides are comprised of related females. Females are lifelong residents in their mother’s territory. Female pridemates do not compete or fight with each other and do not display the kinds of dominance behavior that are observed in many matriarchal social systems. Related females in the same pride tend to have synchronous reproduction, and they cross-suckle their cubs. This cooperative behavior discourages dominance behavior. In contrast, males are very aggressive with other pride members, especially when feeding. The lack of dominance among females may have made it easier for communal cub-raising, since females are unable to influence the reproduction of other female pride members. Alternatively, the mutualistic benefits of communal cub-raising may have reduced the tendency to form pride hierarchies.

Lions have the great ability to critically injure or kill other lions when engaged in a fight. Fighting with a pridemate of similar age and sex not only threatens the survival of the individual but also risks injuring a valuable team-member that could later help to defend the pride against intruders. It would seem, therefore, that intrapride aggression would be selected against. (Estes, 1993; Packer and Pusey, 2001)

The lions of the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania have been studied continuously since 1966. Research has shown that lions form groups for many reasons besides greater hunting efficiency. Because lions live at higher population densities than other large cats, there is a great need for pride members to collectively defend their territory against takeovers by other lions. Also, lionesses reproduce synchronously and form highly stable groups that defend their cubs against infanticide. Finally, smaller prides tend to be more gregarious than larger prides in order to defend their territory as a group. (Packer, Scheel, and Pusey, 1990)

Areas that have the greatest variety and total biomass of hoofed mammals (prey) in open habitats can support up to 12 lions per 100 km^2. In an area with bountiful prey, lions spend approximately twenty hours per day sleeping. They become most active in the late afternoon, mainly socializing with the pride. Hunting typically takes place at night and into the hours of the early morning.

Lastly, lions have a common greeting ritual of rubbing heads together with tails looped in the air, while moaning. (Estes, 1993)

Home Range
Home range sizes of African lions depend on the prey density. Home ranges can be from 20 to 400 km^2. (Estes, 1993)

Key behaviors:
terricolous; nocturnal ; crepuscular ; motile ; nomadic ; sedentary ; territorial ; social .

Communication and Perception
Lions have the cognitive ability to recognize individuals and to interact with other lions to benefit their own survival. They use visual cues in this communication. For example, the mane is thought to signal to other lions the sex of a male from a distance and to indicate individual fitness. (The rate of mane development is mostly controlled by testosterone.)

Resident male lions regularly mark their territory by spraying vegetation with urine and by scuff-marking. Females spray occasionally. This behavior starts at the age of 2 years. This type of marking uses both chemical and visual communication signals.

Male lions start to roar at 1 year of age and females start shortly after this. The male’s roar is both louder and deeper than the female's. Lions can roar at any time, but they typically stand or crouch while roaring. Roaring serves to advertise territories, to communicate with other pride members, and to demonstrate aggressions toward enemy lions. Lions also roar in chorus; this may be a form of social bonding. This is accoustic communication.

Finally, lions use tactile communication. Males engage in physical aggression during pride take over. There is touching during greetings between pride members. Physical communication passes between lactating females and the cubs they are nursing. (Estes, 1993; Grinnel, Packer, and Pusey, 1995; Schaller, 1972; Urban and West, 2002)

Communicates with:
visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical .

Other communication keywords:
choruses ; scent marks .

Perception channels:
visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical .

Food Habits
Lions are predatory carnivores. They usually hunt in groups, but the actual killing is done by an individual lion. They frequently bring down prey much bigger than they are themselves. Showy males have more difficulty hunting than females because of their conspicuousness, therefore females in a pride do the majority of hunting. Males are still more aggressive during feeding than are females, even though they are less likely to have killed the prey. (Estes, 1993)

African lions eat the most common large ungulates in the area (Thompson's gazelles Gazella thomsonii, zebras Equus burchellii, impalas Aepyceros melampus, and wildebeests Connochaetes taurinus). Individual prides tend to have their own eating preferences. Some prides tend to target large prey such as cape buffalo Syncerus caffer and giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis. Lions that are not able to capture large prey will eat birds, rodents, fish, ostrich eggs, amphibians and reptiles. Lions also actively scavenge, taking cues from hyenas and vultures. (Alden et al., 1998; Estes, 1993)

In Tanzania's Serengeti National Park, local lions subsist on a diet comprized mainly of 7 species: zebras Equus burchellii, wildebeests Connochaetes taurinus, Thompson's gazelles Gazella thomsonii, buffalos Syncerus caffer, warthogs Phacochoerus aethiopicus, hartebeests Alcelaphus buselaphus, and topis Damaliscus lunatus provide 90% of their diet.

Hunting effectiveness is increased by hunting in groups. Serengeti research has shown that individual lions succeed in their hunting 17% of the time, whereas group hunts succeed 30% of the time. (Urban and West, 2002)

Primary Diet:
carnivore (eats terrestrial vertebrates).

Animal Foods:
birds; mammals; amphibians; reptiles; fish; eggs; carrion .

Predation
Known predators

Spotted hyena Crocuta crocuta
Humans Homo sapiens
Adult lions have no natural predators, excepting persecution by humans. Lions often kill and/or compete with other predators (leopards Panthera pardus and cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus). Spotted hyenas Crocuta crocuta defend kills or scavenged food from immature and female lions, but typically leave the food to a big male lion. Hyenas are known to kill lion cubs, juveniles, or weak and sick adult lions. (Estes, 1993; Schaller, 1972)

Lion cubs, if left alone, can be vulnerable to other large predators. However, infanticide is the primary threat to cubs. (Estes, 1993; Schaller, 1972)

Human poaching is a problem for lions. These animals are poached with wire snares, rifles, and arrows. Since lions are scavengers, they are particularly vulnerable to intentionally poisoned carcasses. There are still poachers that operate within some national parks in Africa. It has been estimated that in the 1960's, poachers were responsible for approximately 20,000 lion deaths per year in Serengeti National Park. Trophy hunting is allowed in 6 African countries. (Cat Specialist Group, 1996; Estes, 1993; Schaller, 1972)

Ecosystem Roles
Lions are the top predators in their range. It is not clear to what extent lions regulate their prey population; some studies have shown that food availability plays a larger role in regulating prey populations than consumption by lions. (Eltringham, 1979)

Economic Importance for Humans: Negative
Humans are fearful of being attacked by lions and of their livestock being killed by lions. In most cases, this has not been a large problem. Lions have historically coexisted with the Masai and their cows in east Africa. When the prey base is plentiful, lions do not typically attack cattle. Also, if a lion sees a human on foot, it will typically run in the opposite direction. (Eltringham, 1979; Packer and Pusey, 2001)

There have been well-publicized attacks on humans by lions, such as the man-eating lions of Tsavo (killed 135 construction workers) portrayed in the 1996 movie The Ghost and the Darkness. As lions lose habitat, they are more frequently entering human inhabited areas, thus creating more conflict and potential for "problem lions" that attack humans. (Dudley, 2002; Pickrell, 2004)

Lions are frequently infected with FIV (Feline Immunodeficiency Virus) which is similar to HIV. In Tanzania’s Serengeti National Park, Ngorongoro Crater, and Kruger National Park of South Africa, 92% of lions tested had FIV. FIV does not seem to adversely affect lions but it will kill domestic cats. (Packer and Pusey, 2001; Urban and West, 2002)

Ways that these animals might be a problem for humans:
injures humans (bites or stings); causes or carries domestic animal disease .

Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
Lions are a glamorous species, well-known throughout the world. They are a cultural icon in England and are one of the highest valued eco-tourism species in Africa. They are also the subject of many documentaries and research efforts. (Dudley, 2002)

Ways that people benefit from these animals:
ecotourism ; research and education.

Conservation Status
IUCN Red List: [link]:
Critically endangered.

US Federal List: [link]:
No special status.

CITES: [link]:
Appendix I; Appendix II.
Panthera leo leo (Barbary lions) and P. l. melanochaita (Cape lions) are two extinct subspecies of African lion.

African lion populations have greatly declined in West Africa and in many African countries they are restricted to protected areas. If there are no connecting corridors between wildlife reserves genetic viability will likely become a problem. (Cat Specialist Group, 1996; Hanby, Bygott, and Packer, 1995; Urban and West, 2002)

Asiatic lions, P. l. persica, are confined to one population in the Gir Forest reserve of India, consisting of less than 200 mature individuals. This subspecies is listed as critically endangered on the IUCN red list and is on Appendix I of CITES. Another population of Asiatic lions is desperately needed in order to safeguard the survival of this subspecies. The Palpur-Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary in northern Madhya Pradesh had been identified as a potential reintroduction site in India. Threats to the Gir Forest population include the close proximity of humans and their cattle and habitat degradation. ("Asiatic Lion Information Center", 2001; Cat Specialist Group 2001, 2003; O'Brien et al., 1987)

Some very small lion populations require genetic management in order to survive and maintain genetic diversity. Hluhluwe-Umfolozi Park (HUP) in Natal, for example, has a population of 120 lions produced from only three lions that were introduced into the park in the 1960s. In 2001, researchers tried artificial insemination techniques to rejuvenate the genetic pool of these South African lions. This process is very difficult and energy intensive. Inbred populations could also potentially be rejuvenated by introducing adult females and whole prides into an area (minimizing conflict between existing lions and introduced lions). (Trivedi, 2004)

Other Comments
Fortunately, individual lions can be dependably identified in an unobtrusive manner. Lion whisker spots are similar to our finger prints. Every individual lion has a unique whisker spot pattern. More specifically, the number and relative position of whisker spots on the top row are used to identify individuals.
Guest Delete
WANTED BY RUNNING WITH BIKER... THE TERRORIST ZEBRA!
He had guns, bomb and knife. He is wearing a T-shirt and shorts and boots.
He killed 1,000000 people, bombed 30.0000 houses and buildings.
he breaked trees too.
kid Delete
wildthing you need to QUIT IT
adrianne Delete
i think this picture is realy ad because it is just not
right so like yeah so like yaed
adrianne Delete
i think this picture is realy ad because it is just not
right so like yeah so like yaed
JAMAICAN BOBSLED Delete
THE ZEBRA LOOKS LIKE DANNY JANDU
hey Delete
i agree with kid! wildthing get off the com or stop writing about the animal!! your annoying me!!!!
Guest Delete
ssss
Cheetah Delete
That is soooooo funny!! I love it!!
Guest Delete
That is so cool! Is it real because I like it! Good thinking! LOL! So funny and realaistic!
Guest Delete
your mother takes pride in sucking lion cock...trebeck.
Guest Delete
your mother takes pride in sucking lion cock...trebeck.
Guest Delete
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Image Info Original File Name: adv.jpg Resolution: 599x448 File Size: 151087 Bytes Upload Time: 2004:05:07 17:51:23
Author Name (E-mail): funny (from@funny.animal.photos)
Subject Go Zebra! A lion chasing zebra the biker!


Email : E-Card | Poster | Web Master Delete Edit Info Admin

Description Go Zebra! A lion chasing zebra the biker!
jinsuk
======
"really funny"

asadzamir786@yahoo.com
======================
"i think this picture is a good picture of a lionchsing the zebre."

???
===
"Very funny! I've never seen a zebra riding a motorbike before! "

thea cooper
===========
"been all over this site burst out laughing when i saw this!!"


===
"Very Funny!!"

nathanielhall75@hotmail.com
===========================
"hahaha lol so funny"

marie
=====
"that is absolutely HILARIOUS!!! ROTFL!!"

jehhd
=====
"jdjkbckjehfvjeovj"

marie
=====
"dear jehhd. Go to typing skool"

marie
=====
"LOL!!!"

Joy to the world
================
"I am so um um um um, AMAZED!
That this is so stuped like come on how many zebras can ride a motor cycle"

to funny
========
" I hate mylefg I poop my pants"

poo poo
=======
"I have a ssaggy butt and I lick it 24 hours a day"

pee wee
=======
"wat the hell!!!! I was lookin 4 frogs and this is wat i get. LOL @ zebra though. This Zebra needz 2 go to skool"

Clarissa
========
"Im sorry.. i must have no sense of humor... this isn't funny"

Trish & Frank
=============
"We thought this was halarious! We own two zebras."

assem 78@yahoo.com
==================
"it is just to fun...I am sure "no""

deefilly
========
"This is one of the funnest pics I've ever seen...great work!!! Love your sense of humor!"

stardust1990
============
"Go d zebra.. Lol"

juddybuddy36
============
" !!! Does that zebra have a licence?!!!"



Comments
your-name 2005/2/13
DO YOU HAVE ANY CAT POOP PICTURES

guest 2005/3/31
wat the heck are u talking about your-name

anyways, thats a hilarious pic how did you do it???

sup man 2005/6/5
what the hell are you talking about quest u dont no notin. That pic is sick

The burger 2005/6/29
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The burger 2005/6/29
I Smell a poo! not of "A"

The burger 2005/6/29
does any 1 wanna chat?

The burger 2005/6/29
doggy@hotmail.co.uk

tyler333 2005/7/25
hey nice picture. i think it is very cool... if you can send me some at ubcool2ic@aol.com

annie rocs!! 2005/10/18
hello! this pic sucs!! na its cool!

wildthing 2006/2/19
go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go 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go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go 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go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go go 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wildthing 2006/2/25
ZEBRA

Equus grevyi
(Grevy's zebra) -looks like it-

Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Subphylum Vertebrata Class Mammalia Order Perissodactyla Family Equidae Species Equus grevyi

Geographic Range
The Grevy's zebra is found in southeastern Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia.

Biogeographic Regions:
ethiopian (native ).

Habitat
Grevy's zebra inhabits dry desert regions and open grasslands.

Terrestrial Biomes:
desert or dune ; savanna or grassland .

Physical Description
Mass
405 kg (average)
(891 lbs)

Grevy's zebra is 1350mm tall at the shoulder and 1250 -1500 mm high at the withers. It has distinctive striping pattern, with black stripes separated by narrow white bands. Stipes continue down the legs to the hooves. There is a distinctive chevron pattern on the hind quarters. The belly is white or ash gray. The head and neck of this species are robust.

Some key physical features:
endothermic ; bilateral symmetry .

Reproduction
Grevy's zebras reach puberty at about four years of age. Females experience a 2-9 day estrus period every 19-33 days. During their estrus, they are recptive to mating for 2-3 days. Gestation requires about 390 days. A single young is typically born in August or September, but mating and births can occur year round. The newborn zebra first stands at 6-14 minutes. It is able to walk within a half an hour of birth, and can run for short distances by the time is is 45 minutes old.

Newly born zebras apparently undergo a critical period of imprinting during which they must learn who their mother is. Since the young zebra will follow anything that moves, new mothers are very aggressive toward other mares for the first few hours after they give birth. This aggression prevents the foal from accidently imprinting upon another female. The young nurse for 275 days.

Key reproductive features:
gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual .

Behavior
Unlike other zebra species, Grevy's zebras do not form permanent herds, and social bonds between any two adult animals seem to be temporary as well. Most adults live in social groups, either of stallions, of mares with their dependent foals, or in mixed sex groups.

Some males are solitary and territorial. Unlike territorial males in other species, Grevy's males are tolerant of other males who enter their territories. However, the non-resident males do not attempt to breed with females, nor do they interfere with the breeding male's activities.

The territories held by male Grevy's zebras are among the largest known for herbivores. The territories range in size from 2.7 to 10.2 square kilometers.

Key behaviors:
motile .

Food Habits
These zebras eat a variety of grasses and other plants.

Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
The Grevy's zebra has been used by native peoples for food and for its beautiful hide.

Conservation Status
IUCN Red List: [link]:
Endangered.

CITES: [link]:
Appendix I.
Grevy's zebra is of special concern for conservationists. It is listed as CITES appendix I, and is considered endangered by IUCN.

Other Comments
This species is the largest of the zebras. It may live up to 18 years in the wild, and captive animals have lived to a ripe age of 30 years old. These animals require less water and are less cold tolerant than other zebra species.

The striped hide of the zebra may function as a sort of camoflauge. It may help to break up the outline of the zebra, especially when the animal is viewed through the twigs and branches of bushes. Motionless zebra are nearly invisible to the human eye at night (from 5 -15 meters away, depending on the lighting conditions.)

LION

Panthera leo
(lion)

Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Subphylum Vertebrata Class Mammalia Order Carnivora Family Felidae Subfamily Pantherinae Species Panthera leo

Geographic Range
African lions (Panthera leo) live in most of sub-Saharan Africa except in desert and rainforest habitats. Lions were exterminated from South Africa and they remain only in Kruger and Kalahari Gemsbok National Parks. Lions once ranged throughout southwest Asia and north Africa. Asiatic lions (P. l. persica) belong to the single remaining subspecies in this region. Once roaming from Greece to central India, Asiatic lions persist in the Gir forest of northwest India. ("Asiatic Lion Information Center", 2001; Alden et al., 1998; Estes, 1993)

In addition to the asiatic subspecies, many taxonomists contend that there are five extant African subspecies. Each subspecies is identified by geographic region. Panthera leo senegalensis (west African or Senegalese lions), P. l. azandica (north east Congo lions), P. l. bleyenberghi (Katanga, Angolan, or south Congo lions), and P. l. krugeri (south African or Transvaal lions). Panthera leo krugeri includes Kalahari lions (sometimes denoted as P. l. verneyi). Lastly, there are East African lions (P. l. nubica). These animals have been categorized as Somali lions (P. l. somaliensis), Masai lions (P. l. massaicus), Serengeti lions (P. l. massaicus), Congo lions (P. l. hollisteri), and Abyssinian lions (P. l. roosevelti). It should be noted, however, that there is some debate as to the validity of the African subspecies classifications, leaving only the Asiatic subspecies, P. l. persica, uncontested. (O'Brien et al., 1987; Urban and West, 2002)

Biogeographic Regions:
palearctic (native ); oriental (native ); ethiopian (native ).

Habitat
Elevation
4240 m (high)
(13907.2 ft)

African lions live in plains or savanna habitat with a large prey base (mostly ungulates) and sufficient cover available. In these optimal habitats, lions are the second most abundant large predator, after spotted hyenas Crocuta crocuta. Lions can also live, with wider ranges, in most habitats except in tropical rainforests and in deserts. Lions can live in forested, shrubby, mountainous, and semi-desert habitats. They are capable of living at high altitudes. There is a lion population in the Bale Mountains of Ethiopia at 4,240 m.

Asiatic lions live in scrubland and teak forest in the small Gir Forest preserve of India. ("Asiatic Lion Information Center", 2001; Alden et al., 1998; Cat Specialist Group, 1996; Estes, 1993)

These animals are found in the following types of habitat:
temperate ; tropical ; terrestrial .

Terrestrial Biomes:
savanna or grassland ; forest ; scrub forest ; mountains .

Physical Description
Mass
126 to 272 kg
(277.2 to 598.4 lbs)


Length
2.40 to 3.30 m
(7.87 to 10.82 ft)

Lions are large cats with short, tawny coats, white underparts, and long tails with a black tuft at the end. They are sexually dimorphic and male lions are the only cats with manes. Three year-old male lions grow manes that vary in color from black to blond. Manes tend to be fuller in open habitats. Adult males typically weigh 189 kg; the heaviest male on record weighed 272 kg (Mount Kenya). Females weigh 126 kg on average. The average male height is 1.2 m and the average female height is 1.1 m. Length ranges from 2.4 to 3.3 m and tail length ranges from 0.6 to 1.0 m; the longest male lion recorded was 3.3 m.

Cubs have brown spots on a grayish coat until the age of three months; spots may remain on stomach, especially in east Africa. Albinism does occur in some populations, but there are no published records of melanism (black fur) in lions. Adult lions have 30 total teeth and adult females have four mammae. (Alden et al., 1998; Cat Specialist Group, 1996; Estes, 1993; Urban and West, 2002)

Asiatic lions (P. l. persica) are slightly smaller than African lions and have shorter manes, thicker elbow and tail tufts, and longitudinal skin folds on their stomachs. Although Asiatic lions are genetically distinct from African lions, the genetic difference between the two species is smaller than that between human races. ("Asiatic Lion Information Center", 2001)

Some key physical features:
endothermic ; bilateral symmetry .

Sexual dimorphism: male larger, ornamentation .

Reproduction
Breeding interval
Female lions tend to have cubs every 2 years. However, if a female's cubs are killed (usually by an intruding male lion), then she will come into estrus early and have more cubs.


Breeding season
Breeding peaks during the rainy season, but is year-round.


Number of offspring
1 to 6; avg. 3


Gestation period
3.50 months (average)


Time to weaning
7 to 10 months


Time to independence
16 months (low)


Age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
4 years (average)


Age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
5 years (average)

Lions breed year-round and are usually polygynous. It is estimated that lions copulate 3,000 times for every cub that survives over one year. One estrus out of every 5 results in a litter and lions mate approximately 2.2 times per hour for the 4 day estrus period. The first male member of a pride that reaches a female in heat has the mating priority over her. Fighting between pride members over females does not normally occur. (Estes, 1993)

Male lions are conspicuously large and showy because they have the opportunity to control the reproduction of many females when they rule over a pride. Males form coalitions with each other to increase their chances of pride takeover. The fierce competition among males and the social structure of a pride have led to infanticide by both males and females. Successful males that takeover a pride have about 2 years before another younger, stronger coalition will replace them. Pride takeover battles are often violent leading to severe injury or death of the losing lions.

It is to the successful male’s reproductive advantage to kill the suckling cubs of the defeated males. A nursing lioness that loses her cubs will come back into estrous within 2 to 3 weeks. The normal time between births is 2 years, which is the typical time for a male to rule a pride. Therfore, by killing all unweaned cubs at the time of pride takeover, males can ensure that they have some opportunity to father offspring of females who would otherwise not be available to them during their tenure as pride leaders. Females vigorously defend their cubs during a takeover and are sometimes killed also. (Estes, 1993; Packer and Pusey, 2001)

Mating systems:
polygynous ; cooperative breeder .

Female lions are polyestrous, breeding throughout the year and peaking in the rainy season. Female lions tend to have cubs every 2 years. However, if a female's cubs are killed (usually by an intruding male lion), then the female comes into estrus early and has more cubs. Females are able to breed at 4 years of age and males at 5 years. (Alden et al., 1998; Estes, 1993; Schaller, 1972)

One to six cubs are born after a 3.5 month gestation period. There is an interbirth interval of approximately twenty to thirty months. Newborn cubs weigh 1 to 2 kg. Eyes typically open by 11 days, cubs can walk by 15 days and are able to run by 1 month of age. Mother lions keep their cubs in hiding until they reach about 8 weeks of age. The cubs are weaned between 7 and 10 months, however they are dependent upon adults in the pride until they are at least 16 months old. (Estes, 1993; Schaller, 1972)

Key reproductive features:
iteroparous ; year-round breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization .

Females are mainly responsible for care of the young. Females nurse their young, but will also nurse the young of their female relatives in the pride if litters are born close together. Cub mortality is lowest when related females in the same pride synchronously reproduce and cross-suckle. Since synchronous reproduction is common in prides, cubs are often raised in cr??ches where the entire pride helps to raise several litters. (Estes, 1993; Urban and West, 2002)

Cubs are often left alone for more than one full day by the time they are 5 to 7 months old. This is a particularly vulnerable time for the cubs to be attacked by predators (often hyenas). Hungry mothers occasionally abandon weak cubs that can not keep up with the pride. (Estes, 1993)

Although males do not directly provide care for the young in a pride, they are important in the protection of the cubs from rival males. So long as a male maintains control over a pride, preventing another male from taking over, the cubs he has sired are at lower risk of infanticide. (Packer and Pusey, 2001)

Parental investment:
no parental involvement; altricial ; male parental care ; female parental care ; pre-fertilization (protecting: female); pre-hatching/birth (provisioning: female, protecting: female); pre-weaning/fledging (provisioning: female, protecting: male, female); pre-independence (provisioning: male, female, protecting: male, female); post-independence association with parents; inherits maternal/paternal territory.

Lifespan/Longevity
Longest known lifespan in wild
18 years (high)


Longest known lifespan in captivity
30 years (high)


Expected lifespan in wild
14 years (average)


Expected lifespan in captivity
30 years (high); avg. 13 years

Female lions typically live longer than males. Males reach their prime between five and nine years but few males survive past ten years of age. Some males have survived until 16 in the wild. Females normally live until 15 or 16 years. In the Serengeti, females live up to 18 years. In captivity, lions live approximately 13 years. The oldest known lion was 30 years old. (Cat Specialist Group, 1996; Estes, 1993; Urban and West, 2002)

Adult lions have no predators, but are vulnerable to humans, starvation, and attacks from other lions. Infanticide is an important contributor to cub mortality and cub mortality increases when prey is scarce. (Schaller, 1972)

Female Asiatic lions live an average of 17 to 18 years, with a maximum of 21 years. Male Asiatic lions generally live for 16 years. Adult Asiatic lions have a less than 10% mortality rate. In the Gir forest, 33% of cubs die during their first year of life. ("Asiatic Lion Information Center", 2001)

Behavior
Territory Size
20 to 400 km^2

Lion prides are fission-fusion societies; pride members come and go and are rarely all together at once. There can be anywhere from 2 to 40 lions in a pride. In Kruger and Serengeti National Parks, pride size was on average 13 lions. The average composition of these prides was 1.7 adult males, 4.5 adult females, 3.8 subadults, and 2.8 juveniles. (Estes, 1993; Packer and Pusey, 2001)

The resident males of a pride are immigrants that have forcefully gained control of the pride from the previous male members. In order to successfully take over a pride, males form coalitions, usually consisting of brothers. Adolescent males leave their natal pride when their fathers (or the new male leaders of the pride) begin to view them as competition at about 2.5 years. These males lead nomadic lives for two to three years, then form a coalition and seek a pride to take over. Male coalitions of 2 tend to rule a pride for no more than two and a half years, long enough for one set of cubs to be reared. Coalitions of three and four tend to rule a pride for longer than 3 years. Coalitions of more than four are rare, most likely because large coalitions are difficult to keep together. (Estes, 1993; Packer, Scheel, and Pusey, 1990)

Prides are comprised of related females. Females are lifelong residents in their mother’s territory. Female pridemates do not compete or fight with each other and do not display the kinds of dominance behavior that are observed in many matriarchal social systems. Related females in the same pride tend to have synchronous reproduction, and they cross-suckle their cubs. This cooperative behavior discourages dominance behavior. In contrast, males are very aggressive with other pride members, especially when feeding. The lack of dominance among females may have made it easier for communal cub-raising, since females are unable to influence the reproduction of other female pride members. Alternatively, the mutualistic benefits of communal cub-raising may have reduced the tendency to form pride hierarchies.

Lions have the great ability to critically injure or kill other lions when engaged in a fight. Fighting with a pridemate of similar age and sex not only threatens the survival of the individual but also risks injuring a valuable team-member that could later help to defend the pride against intruders. It would seem, therefore, that intrapride aggression would be selected against. (Estes, 1993; Packer and Pusey, 2001)

The lions of the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania have been studied continuously since 1966. Research has shown that lions form groups for many reasons besides greater hunting efficiency. Because lions live at higher population densities than other large cats, there is a great need for pride members to collectively defend their territory against takeovers by other lions. Also, lionesses reproduce synchronously and form highly stable groups that defend their cubs against infanticide. Finally, smaller prides tend to be more gregarious than larger prides in order to defend their territory as a group. (Packer, Scheel, and Pusey, 1990)

Areas that have the greatest variety and total biomass of hoofed mammals (prey) in open habitats can support up to 12 lions per 100 km^2. In an area with bountiful prey, lions spend approximately twenty hours per day sleeping. They become most active in the late afternoon, mainly socializing with the pride. Hunting typically takes place at night and into the hours of the early morning.

Lastly, lions have a common greeting ritual of rubbing heads together with tails looped in the air, while moaning. (Estes, 1993)

Home Range
Home range sizes of African lions depend on the prey density. Home ranges can be from 20 to 400 km^2. (Estes, 1993)

Key behaviors:
terricolous; nocturnal ; crepuscular ; motile ; nomadic ; sedentary ; territorial ; social .

Communication and Perception
Lions have the cognitive ability to recognize individuals and to interact with other lions to benefit their own survival. They use visual cues in this communication. For example, the mane is thought to signal to other lions the sex of a male from a distance and to indicate individual fitness. (The rate of mane development is mostly controlled by testosterone.)

Resident male lions regularly mark their territory by spraying vegetation with urine and by scuff-marking. Females spray occasionally. This behavior starts at the age of 2 years. This type of marking uses both chemical and visual communication signals.

Male lions start to roar at 1 year of age and females start shortly after this. The male’s roar is both louder and deeper than the female's. Lions can roar at any time, but they typically stand or crouch while roaring. Roaring serves to advertise territories, to communicate with other pride members, and to demonstrate aggressions toward enemy lions. Lions also roar in chorus; this may be a form of social bonding. This is accoustic communication.

Finally, lions use tactile communication. Males engage in physical aggression during pride take over. There is touching during greetings between pride members. Physical communication passes between lactating females and the cubs they are nursing. (Estes, 1993; Grinnel, Packer, and Pusey, 1995; Schaller, 1972; Urban and West, 2002)

Communicates with:
visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical .

Other communication keywords:
choruses ; scent marks .

Perception channels:
visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical .

Food Habits
Lions are predatory carnivores. They usually hunt in groups, but the actual killing is done by an individual lion. They frequently bring down prey much bigger than they are themselves. Showy males have more difficulty hunting than females because of their conspicuousness, therefore females in a pride do the majority of hunting. Males are still more aggressive during feeding than are females, even though they are less likely to have killed the prey. (Estes, 1993)

African lions eat the most common large ungulates in the area (Thompson's gazelles Gazella thomsonii, zebras Equus burchellii, impalas Aepyceros melampus, and wildebeests Connochaetes taurinus). Individual prides tend to have their own eating preferences. Some prides tend to target large prey such as cape buffalo Syncerus caffer and giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis. Lions that are not able to capture large prey will eat birds, rodents, fish, ostrich eggs, amphibians and reptiles. Lions also actively scavenge, taking cues from hyenas and vultures. (Alden et al., 1998; Estes, 1993)

In Tanzania's Serengeti National Park, local lions subsist on a diet comprized mainly of 7 species: zebras Equus burchellii, wildebeests Connochaetes taurinus, Thompson's gazelles Gazella thomsonii, buffalos Syncerus caffer, warthogs Phacochoerus aethiopicus, hartebeests Alcelaphus buselaphus, and topis Damaliscus lunatus provide 90% of their diet.

Hunting effectiveness is increased by hunting in groups. Serengeti research has shown that individual lions succeed in their hunting 17% of the time, whereas group hunts succeed 30% of the time. (Urban and West, 2002)

Primary Diet:
carnivore (eats terrestrial vertebrates).

Animal Foods:
birds; mammals; amphibians; reptiles; fish; eggs; carrion .

Predation
Known predators

Spotted hyena Crocuta crocuta
Humans Homo sapiens
Adult lions have no natural predators, excepting persecution by humans. Lions often kill and/or compete with other predators (leopards Panthera pardus and cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus). Spotted hyenas Crocuta crocuta defend kills or scavenged food from immature and female lions, but typically leave the food to a big male lion. Hyenas are known to kill lion cubs, juveniles, or weak and sick adult lions. (Estes, 1993; Schaller, 1972)

Lion cubs, if left alone, can be vulnerable to other large predators. However, infanticide is the primary threat to cubs. (Estes, 1993; Schaller, 1972)

Human poaching is a problem for lions. These animals are poached with wire snares, rifles, and arrows. Since lions are scavengers, they are particularly vulnerable to intentionally poisoned carcasses. There are still poachers that operate within some national parks in Africa. It has been estimated that in the 1960's, poachers were responsible for approximately 20,000 lion deaths per year in Serengeti National Park. Trophy hunting is allowed in 6 African countries. (Cat Specialist Group, 1996; Estes, 1993; Schaller, 1972)

Ecosystem Roles
Lions are the top predators in their range. It is not clear to what extent lions regulate their prey population; some studies have shown that food availability plays a larger role in regulating prey populations than consumption by lions. (Eltringham, 1979)

Economic Importance for Humans: Negative
Humans are fearful of being attacked by lions and of their livestock being killed by lions. In most cases, this has not been a large problem. Lions have historically coexisted with the Masai and their cows in east Africa. When the prey base is plentiful, lions do not typically attack cattle. Also, if a lion sees a human on foot, it will typically run in the opposite direction. (Eltringham, 1979; Packer and Pusey, 2001)

There have been well-publicized attacks on humans by lions, such as the man-eating lions of Tsavo (killed 135 construction workers) portrayed in the 1996 movie The Ghost and the Darkness. As lions lose habitat, they are more frequently entering human inhabited areas, thus creating more conflict and potential for "problem lions" that attack humans. (Dudley, 2002; Pickrell, 2004)

Lions are frequently infected with FIV (Feline Immunodeficiency Virus) which is similar to HIV. In Tanzania’s Serengeti National Park, Ngorongoro Crater, and Kruger National Park of South Africa, 92% of lions tested had FIV. FIV does not seem to adversely affect lions but it will kill domestic cats. (Packer and Pusey, 2001; Urban and West, 2002)

Ways that these animals might be a problem for humans:
injures humans (bites or stings); causes or carries domestic animal disease .

Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
Lions are a glamorous species, well-known throughout the world. They are a cultural icon in England and are one of the highest valued eco-tourism species in Africa. They are also the subject of many documentaries and research efforts. (Dudley, 2002)

Ways that people benefit from these animals:
ecotourism ; research and education.

Conservation Status
IUCN Red List: [link]:
Critically endangered.

US Federal List: [link]:
No special status.

CITES: [link]:
Appendix I; Appendix II.
Panthera leo leo (Barbary lions) and P. l. melanochaita (Cape lions) are two extinct subspecies of African lion.

African lion populations have greatly declined in West Africa and in many African countries they are restricted to protected areas. If there are no connecting corridors between wildlife reserves genetic viability will likely become a problem. (Cat Specialist Group, 1996; Hanby, Bygott, and Packer, 1995; Urban and West, 2002)

Asiatic lions, P. l. persica, are confined to one population in the Gir Forest reserve of India, consisting of less than 200 mature individuals. This subspecies is listed as critically endangered on the IUCN red list and is on Appendix I of CITES. Another population of Asiatic lions is desperately needed in order to safeguard the survival of this subspecies. The Palpur-Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary in northern Madhya Pradesh had been identified as a potential reintroduction site in India. Threats to the Gir Forest population include the close proximity of humans and their cattle and habitat degradation. ("Asiatic Lion Information Center", 2001; Cat Specialist Group 2001, 2003; O'Brien et al., 1987)

Some very small lion populations require genetic management in order to survive and maintain genetic diversity. Hluhluwe-Umfolozi Park (HUP) in Natal, for example, has a population of 120 lions produced from only three lions that were introduced into the park in the 1960s. In 2001, researchers tried artificial insemination techniques to rejuvenate the genetic pool of these South African lions. This process is very difficult and energy intensive. Inbred populations could also potentially be rejuvenated by introducing adult females and whole prides into an area (minimizing conflict between existing lions and introduced lions). (Trivedi, 2004)

Other Comments
Fortunately, individual lions can be dependably identified in an unobtrusive manner. Lion whisker spots are similar to our finger prints. Every individual lion has a unique whisker spot pattern. More specifically, the number and relative position of whisker spots on the top row are used to identify individuals.

Guest 2006/3/11
WANTED BY RUNNING WITH BIKER... THE TERRORIST ZEBRA!
He had guns, bomb and knife. He is wearing a T-shirt and shorts and boots.
He killed 1,000000 people, bombed 30.0000 houses and buildings.
he breaked trees too.

kid 2006/4/11
wildthing you need to QUIT IT

adrianne 2006/5/24
i think this picture is realy ad because it is just not
right so like yeah so like yaed

adrianne 2006/5/24
i think this picture is realy ad because it is just not
right so like yeah so like yaed

JAMAICAN BOBSLED 2006/5/24
THE ZEBRA LOOKS LIKE DANNY JANDU

hey 2006/6/14
i agree with kid! wildthing get off the com or stop writing about the animal!! your annoying me!!!!

Guest 2006/9/26
ssss

Cheetah 2007/11/14
That is soooooo funny!! I love it!!

Guest 2008/4/25
That is so cool! Is it real because I like it! Good thinking! LOL! So funny and realaistic!

Guest 2008/6/3
your mother takes pride in sucking lion cock...trebeck.

Guest 2008/6/3
your mother takes pride in sucking lion cock...trebeck.






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Scientific Name: Panthera leo (Linnaeus, 1758)
Synonyms: Felis leo Linnaeus, 1758
Common Names:
English – Lion, African Lion
French – Lion d'Afrique
Spanish – León
Copyright Info AnimmalPicturesArchive.com does not have the copyright for this image. This photograph or artwork is copyright by the photographer or the original artist. If you are to use this photograph, please contact the copyright owner or the poster.

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